Renal vascular disease affects the blood flow into and out of the kidneys. It may cause kidney damage, kidney failure, and high blood pressure.
Vascular conditions include:
Renin is a strong hormone that raises blood pressure. Decreased blood flow to the kidney(s) from renal vascular disease may cause too much renin to be made. This can lead to high blood pressure.
The cause of renal vascular disease will depend on the specific condition involved. The main causes are:
Risk factors for renal vascular disease include:
Symptoms of renal vascular disease vary depending on the type of disease and degree of involvement present.
Type of renal vascular disease
Renal artery stenosis
Renal artery thrombosis
A gradual or incomplete clot may not cause symptoms and go undetected
Renal artery aneurysm
Atheroembolic renal disease
Renal vein thrombosis
The symptoms of renal vascular disease may look like other medical conditions or problems. Always consult your health care provider for a diagnosis.
Your doctor will review your medical history and do a physical exam. Other tests may include:
Your health care provider will figure out the best treatment based on:
Treatment will also vary depending on the type of renal vascular disease that is present.
In acute cases, thrombolytic (clot-busting) medication may be infused into the renal artery for several hours to several days to break up the clot.
Surgery to remove the clot or bypass the artery may be done in some situations.
Treatment of a renal artery aneurysm depends on symptoms and the size and location of the aneurysm. Some smaller aneurysms may not be treated, but may be watched for growth or problems.
Surgery may be used to treat larger, tearing, or growing aneurysms. It may also be used for aneurysms causing lack of blood flow to the kidney and high blood pressure, and aneurysms causing symptoms.
Because of the increased risk for rupture (bursting), a renal artery aneurysm in a pregnant woman or a woman of childbearing age will generally be treated with surgery.
Treatment may include medications to lower cholesterol, blood pressure, and treat other related conditions, such as diabetes.
Diet and exercise are urged to lower blood pressure. Avoid foods high in fats and salt.
Surgical treatment may include:
Renal vein thrombosis is generally treated with an anticoagulant, which keeps the blood from clotting. They may be given intravenously (IV) for several days, then given by mouth for a few weeks or more.
In time, renal vascular disease can lead to kidney failure, which may call for dialysis or a kidney transplant. Other complications include: